πŸ’ python - Usage of __slots__? - Stack Overflow

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I've received error: TypeError: __slots__ must be identifiers. The problem is with RowClassFactory defined in zope/rdb/__init__.py that.


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rating.lesnoy-dvor44.ru β€Ί latest β€Ί __slots__magic.


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It is especially useful if you need to allocate thousands of objects that would otherwise take lots of memory Here is the slots syntax uing the __slot__ keyword.


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Slots in Python: A way to prevent the dynamical creation of attributes and to save memory space in certain cases. The attributes of objects are stored in a dictionary "__dict__". Slots are a nice way to work around this space consumption problem. To define slots, you have to define a list with the name __slots__.


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So what are slots? slots are a different way to define the attributes __dict__['​another_new_message'] = "Yet a new message" my_instance. The answer should be yes, but getting the size of an object is not that easy.


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It is especially useful if you need to allocate thousands of objects that would otherwise take lots of memory Here is the slots syntax uing the __slot__ keyword.


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base-classes is a comma-delimited series of expressions whose values must Attribute __name__ is the classname identifier string used in the class statement. When class C has an attribute __slots__, a direct instance x of class C has no x. it is an error, and Python raises an exception, if no metaclass of a base of C​.


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base-classes is a comma-delimited series of expressions whose values must Attribute __name__ is the classname identifier string used in the class statement. When class C has an attribute __slots__, a direct instance x of class C has no x. it is an error, and Python raises an exception, if no metaclass of a base of C​.


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So what are slots? slots are a different way to define the attributes __dict__['​another_new_message'] = "Yet a new message" my_instance. The answer should be yes, but getting the size of an object is not that easy.


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An attribute reference is an expression of the form x. When 'name' is not a key in C. Many kinds of Python objects have attributes, but an attribute reference has special rich semantics when x refers to a class or instance. Python implicitly calls such special methods , if a class supplies them, when various kinds of operations take place on instances of that class. However, for backward compatibility, the default object model in v2 is the legacy object model , also known as the classic or old-style object model; the new-style object model is the only one in v3. However, in statements in methods defined in a class body, references to attributes of the class must use a fully qualified name, not a simple name. When a nondescriptor value v is found, the overall result of the attribute lookup is just v. In the code in the previous section, attributes f , g , and h are functions; therefore, an attribute reference to any one of them returns a method object that wraps the respective function. In Python, classes are objects values , handled like other objects. Remember that methods are attributes too, so everything we say about attributes in general also applies to attributes that are callable i. Then, when v is a descriptor i. The class object C1 has an attribute named x , bound to the value 23 , and C1. Say you have two almost interchangeable classes SpecialCase and NormalCase and want to flexibly generate instances of either one of them, depending on an argument. For example:. It is a variable that gets bound or rebound to the class object after the class statement finishes executing. For legacy information about the old style, see some ancient online docs from Python supports these concepts through its class and instance objects. The class statement implicitly sets some class attributes. Otherwise, x. The call, often known as instantiation , returns an object known as an instance of the class; the class is known as the type of the instance. Creating an instance implicitly sets two instance attributes. The key difference between unbound and bound methods is that an unbound method v2 only is not associated with a particular instance, while a bound method is. When you use the syntax x. Note that attribute references i. The best way to implement flexible object creation is by using a function, rather than calling the class object directly. You can call a class object as if it were a function. However, rebinding them elsewhere may be necessary if you want to carry state information at a class, rather than instance, level; Python lets you do that, if you wish. Built-in function issubclass C1 , C2 accepts two arguments that are class objects: it returns True if C1 extends C2 ; otherwise, it returns False. For example, for the instance z we just created :. The class being created can be said to inherit from, derive from, extend , or subclass its base classes , depending on what programming language you are familiar with; in this book, we generally use extend. Any class is a subclass of itself; therefore, issubclass C , C returns True for any class C. Calling a factory function is a flexible approach: a function may return an existing reusable instance, or create a new instance by calling whatever class is appropriate. The fact that classes are ordinary objects in Python is often expressed by saying that classes are first-class objects. You can call built-in function isinstance i , C with a class object as argument C. When a descriptor v is found, the overall result of the attribute lookup is, again, type v. With Python, you can mix and match paradigms. A function used this way is known as a factory function. Finally, note that the class statement does not immediately create any instance of the new class, but rather defines the set of attributes shared by all instances when you later create instances by calling the class. When you use the syntax C. Python today has an object model different from that of many years ago. In those extremely rare cases in which you rebind C. A class, just like any other object, can be bound to a variable local or global , an item in a container, or an attribute of an object. A class is a Python object with several characteristics:. The value of x. To create an instance of a class, call the class object as if it were a function. You cannot unbind these attributes. Classes can also be keys into a dictionary. The object-oriented paradigm helps you group state data and behavior code together in handy packets of functionality. Because a bound method is already associated with a specific instance, you call the method as follows:.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} We get bound methods when the attribute reference is on instance x , and unbound methods in v3, function objects when the attribute reference is on class C. You may rebind them on the fly, to change the name or base classes of a class, or to change the class of an instance, but this advanced technique is rarely necessary. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Python is an object-oriented OO programming language. When these lookup steps do not find an attribute, Python raises an AttributeError exception. These classes are known by different names in different programming languages; you can, at your choice, call them the bases , superclasses , or parents of the class being created. In v3, you could code it more simply and cleanly by giving Singleton no superclasses, and calling super without arguments. Therefore, the lookups go no further but rather return 89 and In other words, for attribute binding, there is no lookup procedure involved, except for the check for overriding descriptors. When you refer to an attribute with one of these special names, the attribute reference looks directly into a dedicated slot in the class or instance object and fetches the value it finds there. For example, using the class C1 we just created:. Each call returns a new instance whose type is that class:. Otherwise, isinstance returns False. The class statement is the most common way to create a class object. Therefore, the lookups go no further, but rather return 88 and The other three references must proceed to step 3 of the instance process and look in x. When 'name' is a key in C. A few attribute dunder-names are special. In addition, a method defined in a class body has a mandatory first parameter, conventionally named self , that refers to the instance on which you call the method. Descriptors that are class attributes control the semantics of accessing and setting attributes on instances of that class. There is no difference between instance attributes created by assigning to attributes and those created by explicitly binding an entry in z. Most class bodies include def statements, since functions known as methods in this context are important attributes for most class objects. Class attributes bound to functions are also known as methods of the class. Both classes and the instance have several attributes data and methods , as follows:. There is no difference between a class attribute created in the class body, and one created or rebound outside the body by assigning to an attribute. The nonempty sequence of indented statements that follows the class statement is known as the class body. An instance object implicitly delegates to its class the lookup of attributes not found in the instance itself. You normally specify an attribute of a class object by binding a value to an identifier within the class body. Say that x is an instance of class C , which inherits from base class B. An instance of a class is a Python object with arbitrarily named attributes that you can bind and reference. Instance object z now has an attribute named x , bound to the value 23 , and z. You may rebind but not unbind either or both of these attributes, but this is rarely necessary. This chapter exclusively describes the so-called new-style , or new object model , which is simpler, more regular, more powerful, and the one we recommend you always use; whenever we speak of classes or instances, we mean new-style classes or instances. We coded this example to work equally well in v2 and v3. Thus, you can pass a class as an argument in a call to a function. Similarly, a function can return a class as the result of a call. For example, again referring to the z we just created:. If the first statement in the class body is a string literal, the compiler binds that string as the documentation string for the class. A class can inherit from other classes, meaning it delegates to other class objects the lookup of attributes that are not found in the class itself. However, for lookups of x. The class, in turn, may delegate the lookup to classes from which it inherits, if any. Consider the following:. Your program is usually more readable if you bind, and thus create, class attributes only with statements inside the class body. For any instance z , z. For example, consider:. When v is not a descriptor, the value of C. This class is also known as a direct subclass or descendant of its base classes. Until the body finishes executing, the new class object does not yet exist, and the classname identifier is not yet bound or rebound. Once you have created an instance, you can access its attributes data and methods using the dot. You can give an instance object an arbitrary attribute by binding a value to an attribute reference. Then, Python calls C.